Avago Technologies White Paper Library

Avago's White Paper Library provides detailed technical insights on a variety of ways to solve relevant engineering problems.


Power Supply Control from PCB to Chip Core

As silicon technology advances to enable higher density ASICs, the core logic voltage decreases. The lower voltage, in combination with higher current requirements, requires tighter tolerances on the power supplies. The control of the power supplies from the PCB to the die is the subject of this study.

Published 03/22/10

Fiber Optics

Enabling 550m 40 Gb/s Multimode Optical Interconnects with Enhanced Bandwidth Multimode Fiber

Explosive growth in cloud-based storage and computing services is driving an expansion in both the physical size and overall computing power of the modern data center. The high speed data interconnects linking the individual computing elements within a data center are typically comprised of a mix of both copper and multimode optical solutions. Limited to link distances of a few meters, copper interconnects are most often used to provide server-to-server or server-to-network switch connections within the same rack or chassis. Inter-rack and inter-chassis connections, which usually require greater reach and higher bandwidth, demand an optical solution and are enabled by VCSEL-based parallel fiber optic transceiver modules. For example, Avago Technologies’ eSR4 QSFP+ transceiver operates at 40 Gb/s over 300 meters of standard OM3 multimode parallel optical fiber. While a maximum link distance of 300 m is sufficient to meet the needs of most legacy data centers, today’s mega data centers often demand more. This white paper details how Avago Technologies eSR4 QSFP+ transceivers can enable 40 Gb/s links up to distances of 550 m when paired with the latest generation of enhanced bandwidth multimode optical fiber such as Panduit®’s Signature CoreTM Cabling System, Corning Cable System’s Pretium EDGE ®, and CommScope® SYSTIMAX® LazrSPEED® 550 fiber solutions.

Published 08/05/14

Fiber Optic Sensor Systems for Arc Flash Detection

Published 06/12/14

ONIDS 2002, Review of the 10Gigabit Ethernet Link Model

Published 11/20/12

Industrial Fiber Optic Products for Wind Turbine and Wind Farm Applications

Global warming and climate changes from CO2 emissions of traditional energy sources, such as those powered by fossil fuels, have created huge markets for alternative power generation. Wind turbine energy has become a popular alternative to meet the fast growing energy demand. Unlike fossil fuels, which are a limited and diminishing resource, wind energy is limitless and readily available.

Published 07/26/12

Industrial Fiber Optics in Train Transportation Systems

Trains are one of the most popular transportation systems because they are cost effective and able to transport lots of people or goods. Trains also provide high-speed transportation with relatively low CO2 emissions. A train can be a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars or a self-propelled multiple unit. A modern train is usually powered by grid electricity or by diesel locomotives. Trains have become more sophisticated with advanced systems that automatically control and monitor train operation. These integrated systems give passengers and freight a smooth and safe ride. This whitepaper discusses how modern train system design ensures reliable operation of the train power source, propulsion system and coach control systems.

Published 07/26/12

A Demonstration of PCI Express Generation 3 over a Fiber Optical Link

A Demonstration of PCI Express Generation 3 over a Fiber Optical Link

Published 07/03/12

QSFP+ iSR4, 40Gb Ethernet QSFP+ Transceiver, Interoperable with 10GBASE-SR up to 100 m

Published 03/22/12

Transferring High-Speed Data over Long Distances with Combined FPGA and Multichannel Optical Modules

Published 03/22/12

Applications for Embedded Optic Modules in Data Communications

Bandwidth demands of data center, computing, and telecommunication applications are driving networking I/O requirements to levels that are challenging to achieve with edge-mounted copper and optical interfaces; the only solution is embedded parallel optics. In fact, since 2000, core switches, routers, and high-performance computers have employed embedded parallel optics to deliver the I/O performance between racks in multi-chassis configurations. Today, with the ever increasing demand for data and bandwidth, embedded parallel optics from Avago Technologies have become the solution of choice in more systems and applications from enabling the interconnect between nodes of the world’s most powerful supercomputers to transmitting data from sensors in challenging medical imaging environments.

Published 06/10/11

100 Gigabit Ethernet Drivers and Technology

Published 03/25/10

Considerations for High Speed PCB Track Design in 10Gb/s Serial Data Transmission

A fundamental evaluation of a variety of approaches for designing a high-speed (10 Gb/s) serial differential electrical channel is examined. The application of the electrical interface has been simulated using HSpice software.

Published 03/24/10

Networks to Converge10 Gigabits: SANs to Seamlessly Connect LANs MANs

Today, general networking, storage networking and inter-processor communications have each developed different standards. As we move toward a 10 gigabit-per-second world, total cost of ownership and interoperability will drive the industry toward a single networking interconnect standard.

Published 03/23/10

Fiber Optic Transceivers in Basestation Applications

The enormous increase in cellular telephone usage has created demand, additional network capacity and bandwidth. Cellular network capacity growth is driven by new cell phone functions and services such as cameras, personal organizers, web browsing, e-mail and text messaging.

Published 03/22/10

General Interest

Reflective Color Sensing with Avago Technologies’ RGB Color Sensor

Reflective color sensing is typically realized through photodiodes with multiple illuminant or photodiodes coated with color filters with single illuminant. This paper presents the concept of reflective color sensing using an RGB color sensor.

Published 03/23/10

Solid State Relay Transient Immunity

The Solid State Relay (SSR) is a solid-state replacement of the electro-mechanical relay, and is commonly used for general purpose switching of signals and low power AC/DC loads. It consists of a light-emitting diode (LED), a photo-sensitive FET driver and high-voltage MOSFETs.

Published 03/22/10

Industrial Fiber Optics

Optical Phase Interrogation - A Cost-Effective Solution for Sensing Strain with Polymer Optical Fibers

Strain sensing solutions based on polymer optical fibers (POF) provide designers with low-cost sensing solutions that are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) and do not require electrical current at the sensing point. To perform strain sensing, light moving through the plastic fiber is split into two equal paths, one path coupled to a polymer optical fiber that is subjected to strain, and the second path coupled to an unstrained reference fiber. The correlation between strain and phase change from the two optical signals provides a phase differential that is translated into the amount of strain.

Published 11/20/13

Galvanic isolation for IGBT-Driver

Usually, an IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) is described in the following way: "An IGBT is a combination of a field effect transistor and a bipolar transistor where an N-channel FET controls a bipolar transistor". Although this sentence describes the basics very well, in the case of IGBT applications in the high power range, the complexity of the IGBT control circuit is in fact much higher than in the case of the control of a small MOSFET.

Published 07/16/13

Fiber Optics in Solar Energy Applications

Solar energy has recently become a popular alternative source to meet energy demands around the world due to the fluctuation of oil/coal prices and global warming issues. Oil is a limited and diminishing resource, and because of this, the price surges when demand is high.

Published 07/26/12

Fiber versus Copper Links: Making the Right Choice for Industrial Environments

Industrial environments are particularly challenging for data communications network designs for a variety of reasons. Typically rife with electromagnetic interference (EMI), unless every precaution is taken, these extremely noisy environments can wreak havoc on process control, automation feedback monitoring and data networks built with twisted-pair copper links.

Published 07/12/12


Color Management of Red, Green and Blue LED Combinational Light Source

Combining red, green and blue LEDs (light emitting diodes) to form a light source is an attractive proposition. Such a multi-color light source can generate a wide range of colors and the LEDs themselves are robust and highly efficient. LED light sources will improve many existing applications, such as LCD backlighting, and enable new ones, such as adaptive automotive interior lighting. There are, however, challenges to overcome before a high-quality multi-color LED light source can be produced. This paper describes an Application Specific Standard Product (ASSP) integrated circuit that addresses many of those challenges.

Published 03/22/10

Innovate Keypad Design With Light Guides and LEDs

A light guide transmits light with high uniformity and minimal loss from an LED light source to a particular area away from its light source. Light guides are made from optical grade material such as acrylic resin, polycarbonate, epoxies and glass.

Published 03/22/10

Recommendations for Installing Flash LEDs on Flex Circuits

For the mobile market some PCB assemblies have been converted to flex circuit assemblies, in part because flex circuit assembly can be twisted or bent per the application needs. Flex circuits ofer the same advantages as conventional printed circuit boards: quality, reliability, and high density.

Published 03/22/10

The Latest LED Technology Improvement in Thermal Characteristics and Reliability - Avago’s Moonstone 3-in-1 RGB High Power LED

The range of applications for light emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to grow significantly. One of the fastest-growing and most promising uses for LEDs is in illumination applications. The LED is penetrating this market rapidly due to its combination of excellent color saturation, energy savings to meet today’s demand for reduced-energy “green” products, and long life characteristics.

Published 03/22/10

Thermal Modeling for Application of High Power LED

The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of light emitting diode (LED) components becomes increasingly more important as CFD spreads into the design process.

Published 03/22/10

Ultra Thin Profile RGB LED Module

The range of applications for light emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to grow significantly. One of the fastest-growing and most promising uses for LEDs is in illumination applications. The LED is penetrating this market rapidly due to its combination of excellent color saturation, energy savings to meet today’s demand for reduced-energy “green” products, and long life characteristics.

Published 03/22/10

Motion Control

Commutation of a BLDC Motor w/ Various Pole-pairs Simplification

Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors are gaining popularity and larger market acceptance. BLDC motors are used in industries such as Industrial Automation Equipments,Consumer, Medical, Automotive, Aerospace and Instrumentation. BLDC motors do not use brushes for commutation; instead, they are electronically commutated.

Published 03/22/10

Encoders for Drive By Wire Automobiles

In aviation the term fly-by-wire means that the control surfaces of an aircraft are operated by actuators rather than via cables and rods, with electrical signals transmitting information from the cockpit to the actuators. The pilot’s controls, such as the control stick and rudder pedals, are fitted with analog or digital transducers that generate electrical signals corresponding to the given command. The outputs of the transducers are processed through a stability augmentation computer. The computer compares the aircraft’s actual motion, as sensed by gyros and accelerometers, and corrects it to a control law, improving the aircraft’s handling.

Published 03/22/10

Implementation of a DSP-based 20-bit High Resolution Quasi-Absolute Encoder for Low-Speed Feedback Control Applications

Absolute encoders using optical technology often face limitations in resolution and size. For example, to achieve a higher resolution of up to 16-bits, the absolute encoder has to be combined with an incremental pattern that is strongly interpolated with an external hardware and signal conditioning circuits. Alternatively, design engineers may use high-speed DSPs (Digital Signal Processors) to implement signal processing algorithms and calibration coefficients that can be stored in non-volatile memory.

Published 03/22/10

Portable and Affordable Sensors for the Medical Device Market Reflective Surface Optical Motion Sensor Encoders

In the complex medical device market today, device manufacturers strive to develop products that have competitive advantages and compelling end-user value. For instance, demand is rapidly increasing for home-managed therapy as consumer awareness grows of the benefts and cost savings of self-administered medical care.

Published 03/22/10

Process Flow Optimization with Absolute Encoders in Valve Control

In process flow control, there are many actors afecting variability but the greatest contributor is the control valve’s performance. Issues associated with control valves, such as dead band, actuator/positioner’s design, response time, valve type and sizing, all have huge impacts on process flow. Extensive studies on controlloops have indicated as high as 80% of all control loops did not perform adequately in reducing process variability, apparently due to various issues with the control valve.

Published 03/22/10

Simplifying BLDC Commutation and Feedback System

In a Brushless DC (BLDC) motor system, an electronic mechanism is required to commutate the system. Unlike a Brush DC motor system, the permanent magnet is located at the Rotor and the windings are located at the Stator. As a result of this setup arrangement, the windings are required to energize in sequence, to enable smooth commutation. For the electronic system to determine which windings to energize, Hall sensor feedback is used to get the current location of the windings with respect to the Rotor magnet. When using the Hall sensor, the manufacturer is required to add an additional printed circuit board and magnet that will increase cost. Furthermore, an additional 2- or 3-channel positional encoder is required for servo application that will further increase the complexity of the BLDC motor system.

Published 03/22/10

Stator Coupling Model Analysis

In this study, finite element analysis was used to optimize the design of a stator coupling in order to increase its natural frequency. Through design iterations and analysis, it was discovered that by increasing the center hole diameter of the coupling as well as introducing stiffening ribs at the flexible part of the structure, natural frequency will increase from its original design of 714Hz to an optimized design of 1611Hz.

Published 03/22/10


Calculate Reliable LED Lifetime Performance in Optocouplers

Optocouplers are used extensively for high-voltage isolation and electrical noise rejection – two essential requirements for transmitting correct information between different voltage potentials within an electrical system. Such systems must be able to operate reliably for many years when used in industrial, medical, renewable energy environments, and any other system that has a long expected operating lifetime.

Published 07/24/14

SiC MOSFET Gate Drive Optocouplers

Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductors are rapidly emerging into the commercial market delivering several benefits over conventional Silicon-based power semiconductors. SiC MOSFETs can improve overall system efficiency by more than 10% and the higher switching capability can reduce the overall system size and costs. The technical benefits coupled with lower costs have increased the fast adoption of SiC power semiconductors in applications like industrial motor control, induction heating and industrial power supplies and renewable energy.

Published 05/07/14

5 MBd Digital Optocouplers Targeting Low-Power/Low-Supply Voltage Applications

Published 12/28/13

Improve Lithium-Ion Battery-Stack Safety in Electric Vehicles by Leveraging Optocouplers to Isolate High Voltages

There are many challenges associated with high-voltage Li-ion battery-stack management in all-electric or hybrid automotive applications. Charge and discharge cycles must be monitored and controlled, and the battery stack, which often delivers voltages of several hundred volts, has to be isolated for safety concerns. In particular, this paper will examine the requirements for Li-ion cell monitoring, and review the architecture and components used in the cell-monitoring subsystem, digital-communications subsystem, and isolation interface.

Published 10/08/12

Optimizing High-Voltage Common Mode Rejection Performance of the ACPL-x6xL Ultra-Low Power Optocouplers

The ACPL-x6xL products are optically coupled ultra-low power 10 MBd digital CMOS opto couplers that operate with low power consumption, especially when the light emitting diode (LED) operates at low current. When a current is applied to drive the LED, common mode rejection (CMR) can be aff ected by leakage paths inherent to the LED. This paper describes the optimization of CMR performance with split limiting resistors at the LED.

Published 05/25/12

Ensure Safe System Operation with Certified Isolator Devices

Isolation components such as optocouplers that are used in applications that have user safety issues as a key aspect must not fail under continuous high-working-voltage bias conditions. Safety hazards exist and human life is at risk when such insulation fails and the high voltages come in contact with the user. To prevent such occurrences, continuous working voltage ratings and test methodologies are regulated by international component standards and equipment safety standards

Published 04/25/12

Protect IGBTs by Sensing Current Using Optical Isolation Amplifiers

Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) require full protection to avoid damage and failures resulting from conditions such as short circuits, overloads and overvoltages. The protection is key to ensuring safe and stable power-converter operations in applications such as motor drives and solar and wind power generation systems.

Published 04/16/12

Integrate Protection with Isolation In Home Renewable Energy Systems

Home energy systems based on renewable sources such as solar and wind power are becoming more popular among consumers and gaining increasing support from governmental bodies. Such systems, however, need fault protection in order to achieve the product lifetime that consumers demand as well as isolation to ensure consumer safety. Integrating the two capabilities can help simplify system design as well as lower cost.

Published 03/22/12

Building Safe and Reliable Electrical System Optocouplers

Electrical systems, no matter what their purpose, share three primary requirements: reliable, safe, and long life operation. To ensure safe operation, users must be double insulated from any dangerous high voltages the equipment employs. To ensure reliable and long life operation, control electronics must also be protected from hazards such as electromagnetic interference and voltage spikes. Avago's optocouplers provide safety and protection unmatched by any other isolation technology.

Published 01/13/12

Digital Optocouplers Deliver Low Power Consumption

Avago’s new ACE Q100 grade optocouplers, the ACPL-K4xT/K7xT series has significantly lower LED driving current compared to conventional optocouplers, thus lowering system power consumption. Additionally, the unique stretched surface-mount package reduces the optocoupler’s footprint and volume while improving the insulation clearance and creepage, thus increasing the insolation voltage rating. The ACPL-K4xT//K7xT family of digital optocouplers can be widely applied in applications such as IPM drivers, CAN bus interfaces and discrete digital-signal isolation in HEV, PHEV and EV systems.

Published 11/17/11

Keep Hybrid Powertrain Drives Noise-Free by Rejecting dV/dt Noise with Isolated-Gate Drivers

High common-mode noise is a significant problem that automotive system designers must overcome when designing a practical and reliable powertrain drive system. Common-mode noise (also known as dV/dt noise) is generated naturally within a system when there is high-frequency switching in the high-voltage power inverters and other power supplies. This article will discuss the various sources of dV/dt noise in a hybrid powertrain drive and suggest several approaches to minimize the effects of the noise on the drive electronics.

Published 10/28/11

Fieldbus Applications with Optocouplers

Fieldbus (or field bus) is the name of a family of industrial computer network protocols used for real-time distributed control. It is a way to connect instruments in a manufacturing plant.

Published 09/28/11

High Reliability LED technology

High Reliability LED technology in Optocouplers for High Temperature Applications in HEVs and EVs

Published 09/09/11

High Speed and Safety Reinforced Digital Isolator for Endoscope and Medical Imaging Applications

Patient contacts in medical devices must be isolated from ac mains to protect the patient from hazardous voltage shocks. In medical imaging devices, large quantities of video imaging data need to be transferred from image sensor to image processor while maintaining high levels of electrical isolation so the sensor won’t shock the patient.

Published 07/04/11

Automotive Isolation Amplifier for Voltage Sensing

The introduction of electric and hybrid electric vehicles have added high voltage electric modules into the car. The battery stack in a hybrid can be in excess of 150V, higher for the inverter driving the motor.

Published 03/25/10

Optocoupler Capabilities for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Electric Motor Inverter Applications

The main feature of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) that helps to save fuel consumption is the electric motor drive. In the HEVs, there are several confgurations in the propulsion systems (ex. electric motor assist or fully electric motor drive during start). The main confguaration, the inverter system, is required to deliver powerful and efcient drive to the electric motor. In sophisticated electric motor drive systems, there should be a system to provide regenerative braking and transfer of energy back to the storage system via the battery charging process. The system will function as both an inverter for electric motor propulsion and converter/generator for the battery charging process.

Published 03/25/10

Isolation Device in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

The global market demand for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) will grow approximately twenty percent annually through 2010. The popularity of these fuel-efficient vehicles is driven by erratic fuel prices, increased emissions regulations by different countries and lowering cost disparities between HEV and gasoline vehicles.

Published 03/24/10

Optocouplers for Variable Speed Motor Control Electronics Consumer Home Appliances

Published 03/24/10

Ambient light Sensing HSDL9000

Avago White Paper on Ambient Light Sensing using the Avago  HSDL-9000

Published 03/23/10

Effective Isolation for Better Protection in Test and Measurement Equipment

For higher accuracy data acquisition systems, it is a challenge for the test and measurement equipment designer to measure small signal variations when high common mode voltages (wanted or unwanted) are present. These high voltages exist due to the different potential in the two grounds or any sudden transient over voltages due to lightning strikes or power surges from motors or switching devices. These voltages do not only impact on the accuracy of the measurement, but also damages the test systems and cause hazards to people operating the tester.

Published 03/23/10

Optical-based Analog Front End for Speed Powerline Communications the Home

Control of output power level on GSM mobile phones
Why do we need to control the output power level of mobile phones? There are a number of very good reasons: to prevent intermodulation of base station receivers, to prevent interference with other mobile phones and to minimize power consumption depending on the distance between mobile and base station.

Published 03/23/10

ACSL-6xx0 Stacked LED Enables Highly Integrated Optocouplers

Optocouplers are widely used in providing galvanic isolation because of their true isolation characteristics. The heart of a modern optocoupler is an input infrared-emitting LED and an output photodetector, separated by a light transmissive medium, that can also act as an insulation layer. Or an additional light transmissive dielectric layer can be added to provide insulation. The photodetector can be a phototransistor, a photodiode with a transistor, or an integrated detector/logic integrated circuit. Most optocouplers are certifed to the basic safety standards as outlined by UL1577, CSA and IEC/DIN EN/EN 60747-5-2.

Published 03/22/10

Assuring Data Integrity in an Optically Isolated 3.3 V I²C Bus

The inter-IC bus (I2C bus) is being used in an increasing number of applications, including consumer appliances, communications equipment and industrial equipment. In practically all cases low voltage optocouplers are used to provide galvanic isolation in the 3.3V I2C bus interface. In a minimum confguration three high speed optocouplers are used to isolate the CLK, SDA_in and SDA_out bus signals.

Published 03/22/10

Automotive Optocouplers – Beyond Meeting the Electrical Performance at High Temperature

The trend of electric or hybrid electric vehicles has accelerated the introduction of electronic components into cars. The components residing under the hood will experience high ambient temperatures in excess of +105°C. While some products are able to meet electrical specifications up to +125°C, they cannot be conveniently assumed to be suitable for automotive applications.

Published 03/22/10

Building a Safe and Robust Industrial System with Avago Technologies' Optocouplers

Should production line stoppage occur at an industrial automation company, millions of dollars and opportunity costs can be lost while trying to fix the problem and get the lines running again.

Published 03/22/10

Design Considerations in Using the Inverter Gate Driver Optocouplers for Variable Speed Motor Drives

Inverter Gate Driver optocouplers are ideally suited for IGBT and MOSFET applications for variable speed motor drives. Their high output peak currents coupled with high voltage safety standards certified galvanic insulation, very high common mode noise rejection isolation, solid state device level reliability, and very low power dissipation, makes them indispensable inverter gate driver components.

Published 03/22/10

Designing with High Performance Hermetic Analog Isolation Amplifier

Today, optocouplers are a ubiquitous electronic component,found in almost any piece of electrical equipment or in most industry segments. Since they were first introduced over twenty five years ago, optically coupled isolators, also known as optocouplers, photocouplers, or optoisolators, have proven to be an indispensable component for galvanic insulation and for ground loop noise rejection or other EMI induced noise interference isolation.

Published 03/22/10

Gate Driver Optocouplers in Induction Cookers

Today, with the constant search for energy saving devices, induction cookers, already a trend in Europe, is gaining more popularity in the rest of the world. These kitchen devices are popular for its high efficiency that reduces cooking time and user safety particularly towards children as it does not use flames or fire for cooking.

Published 03/22/10

Mitigation Methods for Parasitic Turn-on effect due to Miller Capacitor

One of the common problems faced when switching an IGBT is parasitic turn-on due to Miller capacitor. This effect is noticeable in single supply gate driver (0 to +15V). Due to this gate-collector coupling, a high dV/dt transient created during IGBT turn-off can induce parasitic turn-on (Gate voltage, VGE) which is potentially dangerous.

Published 03/22/10

Optocouplers in Industrial Communication

Industrial communication includes data monitoring and processing, diagnostic and sensing as well as visualization. To maintain data integrity against group loop current or common mode noise, optocouplers are used to eliminate both problems.

Published 03/22/10

Reliable LEDs for Automotive Grade Optocouplers

One of the key enablers for optocouplers to handle automotive grade 1 applications is the use of very high performance LEDs. The LED light output dropping by less than 0.2%/°C, aids in achieving high temperature specifications and the improvements in LED design and fabrication.

Published 03/22/10

Using 10 and 15 MBd Optocouplers and Optically-isolated Gate Drivers AC Plasma Display Panels

A plasma display panel (PDP) is essentially a matrix of tiny fluorescent tubes that are controlled in a sophisticated fashion. There are two main types, DC and AC. The AC PDP is the most commonly used because of its simpler structure and longer lifetime.

Published 03/22/10

Using Hermetic Optocouplers in Military and Space Electronics

Sensitive and high reliability electronic applications in areas such as space, aeronautics, military, and naval will continue to rely on high reliability hermetic components. The risks associated with using plastic electronic components in harsh and rugged environments, where components may be subjected to extremes of temperature, humidity, radiation, and shock/acceleration are just too great.

Published 03/22/10

Safety Considerations When Using Optocouplers and Alternative Isolators for Providing Protection Against Electrical Hazards

Optocouplers and alternative isolation technologies find widespread use in a variety of products for signal isolation and high voltage level shifting. These devices may also be used to provide safety related insulation. Considering these electrical concerns, it is necessary to understand the safety related characteristics of the optocoupler or alternative isolator.

Published 02/22/10


Avago Technologies’ FBAR Filter Technology Designed Into Latest Generation of 4G & LTE Smartphones

The worldwide mobile handset quarterly growth rate remains in the single digits, but shipments of smartphones continue to explode; and with each successive generation, smartphones continue to off er more user features and capabilities without signifi cantly growing the size and weight of the phone. The driver behind these new devices is the rollout of new cellular networks known as 4G and LTE (Long Term Evolution), with most people equating the latest service with faster download speeds and a better mobile internet experience. As expected, most if not all of the industry news revolves around the features of these latest phones (i.e. battery life, brilliance and resolution of the display, etc.), but what about the semiconductor building blocks that make such wondrous gadgets work?

Published 10/11/12

Integrated LNA Serves Base Station Needs

As demand for wireless broadband grows, so does the importance of cellular base station (BTS) performance. The low noise amplifier (LNA) on the antenna tower is a key element in establishing BTS performance, affecting both the base station’s area of coverage and its tolerance of other nearby transmitters. Integrated LNAs with active bias regulators, such as Avago Technology’s MGA-63x family, provide the noise figure and linearity needed for outstanding BTS performance.

Published 09/30/11

The Big Challenge - Improve Sensitivity of GPS Receiver in Simultaneous GPS Operation

The Big Challenge - Improve Sensitivity of GPS Receiver in Simultaneous GPS Operation

Published 09/20/11

Save Time and Space in Design for Coexistence with Integrated RF Modules

Applications for portable wireless data communications are on the rise with the advent of initiatives such as smart power and with rapid growth in markets for portable devices such as tablet PCs.

Published 06/28/11

Avago RF VMMK Devices Improve Performance by Reducing Parasitic Inductance and Capacitance

Packaging has always significantly impacted on microwave IC and amplifier performance. In most cases, the inherent parasitic capacitance and inductance of the package lead frame and wire bonds set a limit to circuit performance. Avago Technologies developed a bonded-wafer-to-wafer package technology in 2004 and now offers innovative microwave gallium arsenide (GaAs) VMMK devices based on the proprietary WaferCAP™ chip scale package. Surfacemount (SMT), very low cost VMMK amplifier and FET devices are available today and soon to be released diodes and detectors will be added to the VMMK series.

Published 04/20/10

EpHEMT vs HBTs for PA Applications

Many different semiconductor technologies are currently being used for power amplifiers (PAs) that include a mix of Silicon and GaAs devices – Silicon Bipolar, Silicon MOSFET, GaAs MESFET, GaAs HBT and GaAs pHEMT. Avago uses enhancement-mode pHEMT (E-pHEMT) process for its PA design while most competitors have developed GaAs HBT technology. This paper shows why E-pHEMT technology can provide superior electrical and reliability performance for power amplifier design in wireless communications.

Published 03/26/10

An Integrated Low Noise Amplifier and Image-Rejection Mixer in a Surface Mount Package for Low Cost 10-22 GHz Applications

Published 03/25/10

Building a 3.3 - 3.8 GHz 802.16a WiMAX LNA on FR4 Material

Published 03/25/10

Constant Linearity Variable Gain Traveling Wave Amplifier MMIC for 1 to 26.5 GHz Applications

Published 03/25/10

Control Loop Design for GSM mobile phone applications

Published 03/25/10

Dual-band LNA Design for Wireless LAN Applications

Published 03/25/10

No-Hassle Power Amps below 2 Volts

Published 03/25/10

A High Isolation Buffer Amplifier Enhancements Mode PHEMT

The design and implementation of a high isolation buffer amplifier is presented. This IC uses a two gain stage topology processed in the Avago Technologies Enhancement Mode pHEMT GaAs technology and is packaged in the 8-lead 2mm x 2mm LPCC. It operates preferably from a 5 Volt supply and consumes approximately 35 mA quiescent current. By varying an external bias resistor, the buffer amplifier can deliver maximum output power up to 20 dBm at 2 GHz. It has better than 40 dB of input-output port isolation and operates from 0.5 GHz to 6 GHz.

Published 03/23/10

A High Performance, 20-42 GHz MMIC Frequency Multiplier with Low Input Drive Power and High Output Power

Published 03/23/10

Design and Performance of a 1.6-2.2GHz Low-Noise, High Gain Dual Amplifier in GaAs E-pHEMT

The design and realization of a dual low noise amplifier (LNA) module in the 2 GHz band suitable for balanced receiver front-end application is presented. The module was designed to operate from a 5 V supply with a control voltage for convenient adjustment of bias condition for optimum noise figure. The MMIC portion of the designed was fabricated in Avago Technologies' proprietary 0.5 um GaAs enhancement-mode Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (e-pHEMT) process. This module is suitable for balanced amplifier applications when combined with external 3-dB hybrids, giving an extremely low noise figure (NF) of 0.55-0.8 dB, coupled with a moderately high OIP3 (Output Third Order Intercept Point) of 38-42 dBm at 28-32 dB gain. It is also capable of delivering a P-1 dB of more than 20 dBm at 180 mA current drain.

Published 03/23/10

Development EpHEMT

E-pHEMT (enhancement-mode high-electron mobility transistor) is a semiconductor process optimized for wireless applications that operate from a single positive voltage source. Ordinary depletion-mode pHEMTs conduct at zero gate bias, or when the drain current, Id, reaches a saturated level (Idss) at a gatesource voltage (Vgs) of 0 VDC. An E-pHEMT shows no conduction at zero gate bias, so that Id = 0 at Vgs = 0V. Thus, it can operate without the negative voltage (required for switch on) required for depletionmode devices.

Published 03/23/10

Manufacturing and Performance Considerations for Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) USPCS Band Duplexers

Published 03/23/10

A comparison of Bulk and Epitaxial PIN diodes in low cost wideband RF switching

Both electromechanical and semiconductor switches are proven technologies used in the control and routing of RF signals. While the use of mechanical switches can be justified in precision test equipment such as vector network analyzers, size- and cost constrained mass-produced consumer products such as cable or satellite television (CATV/SATV) delivery systems call for electronic switches based on either transistors or PIN diodes. The absence of moving parts also gives semiconductor switches the advantages both of faster response times and longer life spans than their mechanical counterparts.

Published 03/22/10

Avago introduces 18 GHz and 26.5 GHz low-noise E-pHEMT in 0402 Compatible Packages Produced by Advanced Wafer-scale Packaging Technology

Smaller, lower cost components are crucial to the development of today’s higher-performance, smaller and increasingly price-competitive mobile devices. Since the introduction of chip scale packages (CSPs) they have become a major trend in active device packaging.

Published 03/22/10

DC to 85GHz TWA and Ka-band 4.9W Power Amplifier Using an Optical Lithography Based Low Cost PHEMT Process

An optical photo lithography based 0.15μm GaAs PHEMT process and 2mil-substrate technology that enables high production throughput and low cost is described. The developed process achieved Imax=575mA/mm, BVgd=14V, and 753mW/mm of output power density at P-1 condition at 18GHz.

Published 03/22/10

GaAs-Based Surface Mount Wafer Scale Package MMICs for DC to 45 GHz Applications

Packaging has always been the “Achilles Heal” of extracting the maximum microwave performance out of any IC technology. The inherent parasitic capacitance and inductance associated with bond wires, lead frames, and encapsulating dielectric materials dominate the final products high frequency performance. One way to solve this problem is to eliminate parasitic causing factors and make the IC become the package. This is the basis of WSP (Wafer Scale Packaging).

Published 03/22/10

Integration Creates Compact CDMA RF Front End with GPS Capability

In this whitepaper, design requirements, best practice PCB layout, component selection and system design will be addressed. A highly integrated CDMA plus GPS RF front end design with measured performance characteristics will be used as a concrete example. The three Avago RF modules used are: the ACPM-7353 dual-band Power Amplifier Module designed for CDMA (code division multiple access) cellular and PCS; the ACFM-7103 multiplexer; and the ALM-1412 GPS Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) with Integrated Filter. These three compact components replace seven discrete components.

Published 03/22/10

Ka-band 2W/4W MMIC Power Amplifiers in 7x7mm Low-cost SMT Package

The development of PHEMT, 24 to 31GHz 2W/4W power amplifier MMICs are described. The amplifier was designed with highly integrated distributed line-based low-loss power combining design techniques utilizing a 0.15μm GaAs PHEMT production process.

Published 03/22/10

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